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PV loops

PV loops are derived from LV pressure and volume during the cardiac cycle. These loops are determined by the preload, the afterload and the inotropic state of the heart change. The maximal pressure that can be developed by the ventricle at any given left ventricular volume is defined by the end-systolic pressure-volume relationship, which depicts the inotropic state of the ventricle.

Watch the infromative video by Richard E. Klabunde, Professor of Physiology, Marian University College, Indianapolis, USA.